Hello, welcome to my blog. Apologies for the delay in writing this post, I have been a little preoccupied lately. Thankfully I am able to create time to write this post. In this post, I am going to address the problem of distinguishing images that are ads from non-ads. Concretely, given an image the goal is to determine if it’s an advertisement (“ad”) or not an advertisement (“non-ad”). I am going to use the R programming language for this demonstration.
HANDLING MISSING DATA
In this dataset, the first four attributes contain missing values i.e. NA. One common way to handle missing data is to completely drop them from the data and continue the analysis as if these missing observations were not part of the data in the first place. This is not a very good practice because it reduces the amount of data one has to work with especially if the dataset we are using is not very large. In this case, dropping missing data will reduce the number of observations from N=3279 to N=2359 – this is a loss of about 28% of the observations. It should be noted that our dataset is not a particularly large one so dropping missing data may not be such a good idea.
So if we can’t drop missing data how else can we handle them? Another way is to impute missing values i.e. we try to predict the values of the missing observations. One method is to impute missing values with the mean or median of the non-missing observations (for numerical observations) or the most frequent value (for categorical observations). While these methods help us to 'predict' missing values it may reduce the predictive accuracy of the model because we are adding values which may not be correct substitutes for the missing values.
A superior way of handling missing data is to actually predict them. That is what I did – I used a random forest model to predict the values of the missing observations in the dataset. This was done using the missForest package in R. For other R packages you can use for handling missing data check out this post.
Next, I randomly split the data into training (75%) and testing (25%) sets.
BUILDING THE MODEL
I decided to use a Decision tree model and a Logistic Regression model for this problem. In the following paragraphs I will describe the procedure I used to build these models.
I used the C50 package to build a decision tree model from the dataset. This was done using the C5.0 function from the C50 package. Next, I evaluated the model on the test data. The evaluation metrics for the model are shown below:
|Evaluation metrics for the single decision tree model|
I want to draw your attention to the 4 values I underlined in red.
- Kappa statistic: Indicates the agreement between the model’s predictions & true values. Ranges from 0 (no agreement) to 1 (perfect agreement).
- Sensitivity: This measures the proportion of positive examples that were correctly classified. Also known as the true positive rate or recall.
- Pos Pred Value: This is the fraction of predicted positive examples that were actually positive. Also known as precision.
- Specificity: This measures the proportion of negative examples that were correctly classified. Also known as true negative rate.
We can see that the above values for this decision tree model are pretty good indicating that it does quite a good job of discriminating between images that are ads vs non ads.
Although these values looked good, I felt they could be better so I built a boosted decision tree model from the data. This was done by passing ‘trials’ = 10 to the C5.0 function – this generated 10 weak learners from the dataset. The evaluation metrics for the model are shown below:
|Evaluation metrics for the Boosted Decision tree model|
Next, I tried different values of ‘trials’ via parameter tuning with the caret package form R. 8 candidate models were tested and the best model was selected based on the Kappa statistic. The best model was the model with trials = 20 i.e. 20 weak learners. The evaluation metrics for this model is given below:
|Evaluation metrics for the best model|
Before I talk about how I built the logistic regression model, let me give some preliminary details. I noticed that the dataset had a relatively large number of features compared to the number of observations which could lead to overfitting i.e. good performance on the training data but poor performance on the test data. In order to combat this problem, I performed regularization with the following goals in mind:
- Feature selection – I used regularization to select the best subset of features that were able to give good predictive accuracy.
- I also used regularization to ensure that the feature coefficients did not get too large as this is a sign of overfitting.
I used the glmnet package to build regularised logistic regression model from the data. Next, I evaluated the model on test data. I evaluated 3 sets of predictions for 3 values of lambda used by the model – 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3. Lambda is a value used to control the size of the coefficients for the logistic regression model. The evaluation metrics for these predictions are shown below:
|Evaluation metrics for lambda = 0.0001|
|Evaluation metrics for lambda = 0.01|
From this we can conclude that the best regularized logistic regression model is the one with lambda = 0.001.
Before I write my conclusion, I want to highlight the importance of properly handling missing observations. If we had merely dropped the missing observations it is unlikely that we would achieve the impressive evaluation metrics we obtained in this demonstration.
So which model is better? The best decision tree model had a Kappa statistic of 0.9033 while the best regularized logistic regression model had a Kappa statistic of 0.9014. They also have similar values for the other evaluation metrics so I think I will call it a tie. Do you have a different opinion? Let me know!!
In this post, I demonstrated how we can discriminate between images that are ads or non-ads using a decision tree model and a logistic regression model. You can find the code for this post on my GitHub repository. Thank you for reading this post, as always if you have any questions or comments feel free to leave a comment and I will answer you. Once again subscribe to my blog in case you have not. Have a great week ahead and Ramadan Kareem to all my Muslim readers. Cheers!!!